Author Topic: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!  (Read 56264 times)

Offline maplesyrupghost

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« on: April 14, 2013, 07:30:24 pm »
Who is Satoshi Nakamoto?

I seem to see a new theory every day for the true identity of Satoshi.  Don't get me wrong, I want him to remain anonymous forever, but there are so many different theories that I think it would be interesting to have a central thread for all them.  This is that thread!  :)

Got another theory?  Post it below in the layout:

Code: [Select]


<the theory>

« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:57:07 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #1 on: April 14, 2013, 07:35:31 pm »
Theory:  Satoshi is Michael Reiter ^
Theorist:  youarenofreddurstsir on /r/Bitcoin
Date: 2013-04-14

I have no specific background in the areas of knowledge involved in Bitcoin. In fact, they are foreign to me. I am particularly bad with numbers, math, science, music, design and so on, which sets me at both a disadvantage and an advantage.

I am new to Bitcoin. An advantage and disadvantage both.

I have Asperger's. I can read like a motherfucker. Advantage.
I do believe in the power of crowds.

I also believe in the simplest truths being the most correct the most often.

So, I started with an unproven hypothesis: Satoshi Nakamoto is Satoshi Nakamoto.

I did research to put together a highly correlative, ad hoc argument.

I floated said argument online.

Those with seeming specialist knowledge 'vetted' it for me.
I was unaware Satoshi's postings were still online.

I took a random sampling of those postings.

My analysis: It becomes immediately clear (within minutes) the person writing this is American with a very, very high degree of specialised knowledge in the field of computer science.

If one accepts there is an original, singular Satoshi Nakamoto, then it can then be assumed that the person posting under this handle is, in life and blood, the Satoshi.

It also quickly became evident to me that he (not a she) also had a more enthusiast's knowledge of economics.

I then did what every person like me with Asperger's does.

I read fucking everything. Every stupid fucking outlier, every stupid dumb-ass thing I don't give a shit about, and arrived at this:

Nick Szabo's involved.

Meaning, if he's not the one who was posting (he's not), then we know there's an informational exchange going on, with at least one of the two aware of the other and his work or even both knowing (of) each other's work. Not knowing which, I assumed Satoshi was aware of Szabo's work and not vice-versa (though it's highly likely they know, at least unconsciously, of each other's work).

Szabo's work is strong economically, much more so than Satoshi's.

Satoshi's work is much stronger than Szabo's, coding-wise.

Wei Dai's work is a part of Satoshi's knowledge base.

Wei Dai denies being Satoshi. This makes sense.

I then re-begin with the assumption Szabo knows (even unknowingly) who Satoshi is: If Satoshi has a strong math and science background, it's likely he engineered the architecture, too. So, he knows cryptography very, very well.

So, using any references made to male, American individuals as a starting point, I quickly found Michael Reiter, whose linked page is no longer up (from Bell Labs).

Of course, those searching for Satoshi Nakamoto do stumble upon a LinkedIn profile named 'Satoshi Nakamoto' with a picture of Reiter and a mention to Reiter's years at Bell.
This is writing on the wall, folks.

His CV is the only one that makes sense.

The original attempt to find out who he was on another forum focused on members of the original cryptography e-mail exchange.

They were right to look there, but just did not single out the right one.

This is Satoshi.

Read his CV.

He's as bad-ass as you'd imagine Satoshi to be.

He also has obvious reasons for obscuring his identity.

This is a weighted forecast; not a 100%.

Now, prove or disprove it, internets.
« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:57:05 am by maplesyrupghost » founder - bitcoin buy/sell classifieds forum

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #1 on: April 14, 2013, 07:35:31 pm »

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #2 on: April 14, 2013, 07:53:36 pm »
Theory:  Satoshi is Michael Clear or Vili Lehdonvirta ^
Theorist:  Joshua Davis from The New Yorker
Date:  2011-10-10

Bitcoin and its mysterious inventor.

DEPT. OF TECHNOLOGY about bitcoin and its mysterious creator. There are lots of ways to make money: You can earn it, find it, counterfeit it, steal it. Or, if you’re Satoshi Nakamoto, you can invent it. That’s what he did on the evening of January 3, 2009, when he pressed a button on his keyboard and created a new currency called Bitcoin. It was all bit, and no coin. There was no paper, copper, or silver—just thirty-one thousand lines of code and an announcement on the Internet. Nakamoto wanted to create a currency immune to the predations of bankers and politicians. The currency was controlled entirely by software. Every ten minutes or so, coins would be distributed through a process that resembled a lottery. This way, the bitcoin software would release a total of twenty-one million bitcoins, most all of them over the next twenty years. Interest in Nakamoto’s invention built steadily. More and more people dedicated their computers to the lottery, and forty-four exchanges popped up, allowing anyone with bitcoins to trade them for dollars, euros, or other currencies. At first, a single bitcoin was valued at less than a penny. But merchants gradually began to accept bitcoin, and at the end of 2010 the value began to appreciate rapidly. By June of 2011, a bitcoin was worth more than twenty-nine dollars. Market gyrations followed, and by September the exchange rate had fallen to five dollars. Still, with more than seven million bitcoins in circulation, Nakamoto had created thirty-five million dollars of value. And yet Nakamoto was a cipher. There was no trace of any coder with that name before the début of bitcoin. He used an e-mail address and Web site that were untraceable. In 2009 and 2010, he wrote hundreds of posts in flawless English, invited other software developers to help him improve the code. Then, in April, 2011, he sent a note to a developer saying that he had “moved on to other things.” He has not been heard from since. Tells about failed attempts to hack the bitcoin encryption code. Writer tries to deduce Nakamoto’s true identity from clues in his posts and his code. Describes the Crypto 2011 conference of cryptographers, where the writer went looking for Nakamoto. Writer speaks with two possible candidates, Michael Clear and Vili Lehdonvirta, both of whom deny that they are Nakamoto. Also tells about Kevin Groce, who runs a bitcoin-mining operation in Kentucky. Over the summer, hackers targeted bitcoin, and though they were unable to break Nakamoto’s code, they were able to disrupt the exchanges and destroy Web sites that helped users store bitcoins. The number of transactions decreased and the exchange rate plummeted. Commentators predicted the end of the currency. In September, however, volume began to increase again, and the price stabilized, at least temporarily.

You have to be a member of the New Yorker and sign in to read the full article.  I'll see if I can find it though.

Everyone knows who founded Bitcoin but nobody knows who he is. Satoshi Nakamoto invented the virtual currency. He wrote a big paper and hundreds of posts on it and everything. But Nakamoto doesn't really exist, as Joshua Davis wrote in this week's New Yorker. "And yet Nakamoto himself was a cipher. Before the debut of Bitcoin there was no record of any coder with that name. He used an e-mail address and a Web site that were untraceable." Davis set out to find the real Nakamoto. He found the guy: Michael Clear. The problem: Clear denies it. And Fast Company's Adam Peneberg thinks he might have some ideas, pointing to three other possibilities. In the race to unmask the anonymous money's anonymous mastermind, here is what is know and where the speculation leads.

The Facts

  • Nakamoto's extensive postings are written in flawless English.
  • Over the course of two years, he wrote about 80 thousand words and made only a few typos.
  • He covered topics ranging from theories of the Austrian economist Ludwin von Mises to the history of commodity markets.
  • When he created the first fifty bitcoins, he permanently embedded a brief line of text into the data "The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks"--a reference to a Times of London article.
  • He used British spelling, and his comments tended to appear after normal business hours in the the United Kingdon.
  • In an initial post announcing Bitcoin, he employed American-style spelling. But after that he adopted a British style.
  • was created August 18, 2008 from Helsinki.

The Suspects

Michael Clear

The Evidence

He's British, good at computer science, and knows a thing or two about banking, as Davis explains:

In 2008 he was named the top computer science undergrad at Trinity. The next year he was hired by Allied Irish Banks to improve its currency-trading software and he co-authored an academic paper on pee-to-peer technology. The paper employed British spelling. Clear was well versed in economic, cryptography and peer-to-peer networks.
But he had been programming computers since he was ten and he could code in a variety of languages, including C++ the language of bitcoin.

And when directly asked he didn't say he wasn't Bitcoin's founder. "He laughed, but didn’t respond. There was an awkard silence," writes Davis.

The Contradictions

He flat out denies that he is Nakamoto. "I'm not Satoshi" he told Davis. "But even if I was I wouldn't tell you." He reaffirms his position in a posting on his web account at Trinity College Dublin, a direct response to the Davis outing.

Based on some comments from the New Yorker article, some people have suggested that I clarify some points. Hopefully this Plain Old HTML page will clear up some things, and not appear merely captious, since I did in fact enjoy the article.
Although I am flattered that Josh had reason to think I could be Satoshi, I am certainly the wrong person.

Of course, Clear could be keeping up his charade, but he points to another possible suspect.

Vili Lehdonvirta

The Evidence

Michael Clear says so. After taking a look at the coding, Clear pointed Davis to Lehdonvirta. "I also think I can identify Satoshi. It is apparent that the person(s) behind the Satoshi name accumulated a not insignificant knowledge of applied cryptography," Clear wrote to Davis.

Lehdonvirta, a Finnish researcher a Helsinik Institute for Information Technology, had "researched Bitcoin and worried about it," writes Davis. He used to be a video game programmer and has studied virtual currencies. He also is actively involved in Elecrtonic Frontier Finland, an organization that advocates for online privacy.

The Contradictions

He denies it, laughing in Davis's face. And he doesn't exactly have the right background: no cryptography experience and no C++ skills.
« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:56:11 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #3 on: April 14, 2013, 10:29:55 pm »
Theory: Satoshi is Vladamir Oksman, Charles Bry, or Neal J. King ^
Theorist: Adam L. Penenberg
Date: 2011-10-11

The Bitcoin Crypto-Currency Mystery Reopened

A New Yorker writer implies he found Bitcoin's mysterious creator. We think he got the wrong man, and offer far more compelling evidence that points to someone else entirely.

In a recent New Yorker story, Joshua Davis wrote a story on Bitcoin, the crypto-currency that has ignited the imaginations of the technorati and led to a rush of media coverage. But this is no usual magazine feature. Not only does Davis, a marvelous writer whose work I've long admired, offer a primer on Bitcoin--what it is, how it works, why it’s important--he sets off on a journey to find its mysterious, secrecy-obsessed inventor, who goes by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. I think the man he found at the end of his search is the wrong guy. And by transparently sharing my own process for tracking Bitcoin's elusive inventor, I will show how a stream of stunning coincidences can end up pointing to not one, but three potential candidates.

As Davis reported, Nakamoto published a research paper in 2008 that detailed the ideas underpinning Bitcoins and wrote hundreds of posts to a forum in "flawless English." After one last post in April in which he claimed he had "moved on to other things," he vanished, yet his footprints are everywhere. Davis pored through Nakamoto's online writings, all 80,000 words and searched for clues. The mystery man's prose was quite clean, he noted, very few typos, and after his first post, in which he employed American spellings, he switched to the Queen's English for all the rest. Color was "colour," gray, "grey," an apartment was a "flat" and he wrote "bloody hard" at least once. What's more, embedded into the Bitcoin code is a tag that relates to a Times of London headline from January 3, 2009, on the government being on the brink to rescue Britain's banks with a second bailout. Then Davis interviewed a leading computer security researcher who sifted through Bitcoin's code, searching for flaws. He didn't find any, concluding that Nakamoto would have to be "a world-class programmer" with "a deep understanding" of C++--the programming language--and an extensive background in cryptography, economics, and peer-to-peer networking.

Davis reasoned that Satoshi Nakamoto was probably a British national and set off for the Crytpo 2011 conference in Santa Barbara to find him. It led him to Michael Clear, a 23-year-old graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. Clear had worked at a bank, co-authored a paper on peer-to-peer, and, unsurprisingly, employed British spellings. The first time Davis asked Clear, who was named Trinity's top computer student in 2008, if he were Bitcoin's creator, Clear just laughed. The next time Davis asked, Clear replied, "I'm not Satoshi, but even if I was I wouldn't tell you."

After the article was published and numerous media outlets picked up on the sleuth-mystery angle, Clear denied he was Satoshi Nakamoto. He told IrishCentral, "My sense of humor when I said 'even if I was I wouldn't tell you' is missing, this was said jokingly." Clear "found it funny that the New Yorker reporter thought I was Satoshi, but I have always (beyond conversational jokes like the quote above) vehemently denied it. I could never allow myself to be even remotely given credit for someone else's creativity and hard work."

This is where I come in. Like Davis, I too had been trying to find Satoshi Nakamoto and had accumulated a body of circumstantial evidence--including some crazy coincidences--that, taken as a whole, led me to believe that Bitcoin's creator was probably someone else entirely. I wondered if the British spellings and the headline inserted into Bitcoin's code were red herrings, placed there to throw pursuers off the scent. Wasn't Nakamoto's first post written with American spellings? It wouldn't take much for someone as bright as Nakamoto to create a modest disinformation campaign.

But I wasn't confident I could confirm my suspicions. The man (or men) behind Bitcoin had shown he wanted to disappear, and unless he would agree to talk, there was no way I could ever be sure. Unlike, say, Dan Lyons as "Fake Steve Jobs," who confirmed his pseudonymous identity when finally confronted, Satoshi Nakamoto wasn't likely to cooperate, even if promised anonymity in exchange for an interview. For months I sat on this research. Then Davis's article came out.

So I offer my process here, with the caveat that these unlikely coincidences could end up being just that, even though in my opinion my evidence is much more convincing than Davis's. (Said with respect, yo!)

First, most believe that Satoshi Nakamoto is a made up name, and it seems a person as learned as Bitcoin's creator might be tempted to choose a pseudonym that encompasses a deeper meaning. In Japanese Satoshi translates into "clear-thinking; quick-witted; wise." "Naka" can mean "inside" or "relationship" while "moto" is defined as "the origin; the cause; the foundation; the basis." So we have "clear-thinking" "inside" "the foundation." Mystical, isn't it?

I started with some amateur textual analysis of Satoshi Nakamoto's Bitcoin paper, extracting fragments of phrases and running them through Google. I figured I'd see if any of the ones in the paper appear elsewhere online. People tend to repeat themselves. The trick is to plug in unique-sounding fragments and place them in quotes. That way you only get a handful of results to comb through. I struck out on the first few, which all appeared solely in the Bitcoin paper, and there was one irrelevant link. Then I tried the term "computationally impractical to reverse." It resulted in 26 results, the vast majority related to the Bitcoin paper or to bitcoins themselves. Except for one of the last ones--a patent application:

Updating And Distributing Encryption Keys invention

Feb 18, 2010—... the outputs of which are fixed-size strings that are computationally impractical to reverse-map. In this manner, the shared secret, ...

It was for a "system and method for providing secure communications." Initially, "an exchange protocol, such as a password-authenticated key exchange protocol, is used to create a shared secret. From the shared secret, two keys are created: a utilized key and a stored key. The utilized key is used to encrypt messages between nodes. When it is time to replace the utilized key to maintain security, the stored key is utilized to encrypt messages for generating/distributing a new shared secret. The new shared secret is then used to generate a new utilized key and a new stored key. This process may be repeated any number of times to maintain security."

After reading that, I wondered if it could be related to Bitcoin's technology. What are bitcoins but shared secrets? Encryption plays a vital role, and they are certainly dynamic.

I looked at the date on the patent application filing: 08/15/2008.

Now take a look at the domain It was registered three days later.


Created On:18-Aug-2008

Now that is one hell of a coincidence. What are the odds that a phrase in Nakamoto's Bitcoin paper would be replicated in a patent application filed the same year? Further, what are the odds the domain name for Bitcoin would have been registered 72 hours after the patent application was filed?

Based on the timing, I wondered if one of the people on the patent application--or perhaps all three--had based the Bitcoin concept on research that led them to this patent application. The three inventors listed on patent #20100042841 are Neal King, Vladimir Oksman, Charles Bry, and all three have filed numerous patent applications over the years.

Neal King (he also goes by Neal J. King from Munich, Germany) is listed on a number of patent applications, notably "UPDATING AND DISTRIBUTING ENCRYPTION KEYS" (#20100042841) and "CONTENTION ACCESS TO A COMMUNICATION MEDIUM IN A COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK" (#20090196306), both of which seem Bitcoin-y to me.

Charles Bry, who also resides in Munich, has filed several applications, many dealing with nodes and networks.

Vladamir Oksman, who lives in the U.S., has several patent applications, too, and they too seem related to networks, nodes.

I found another patent application that lists the three of them as inventors, filed June 2008--two months before the domain was registered.


"Abstract One embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for key management in a communications network. In this method, a public key authentication scheme is carried out between a security controller and a plurality of nodes to establish a plurality of node-to-security-controller (NSC) keys. The NSC keys are respectively associated with the plurality of nodes and are used for secure communication between the security controller and the respective nodes."

Could that also be related to Bitcoin?

Now, another coincidence: The domain was registered by a Finnish provider, based in Helsinki.

Charles Bry traveled to Finland in late 2007, six months before the domain was registered. In addition, Bry, who is a senior system engineer, lists German, English, French, and Italian as languages he speaks, and went to college in Paris. He works for a company called Lantiq.

Then there's Neal J. King, and there are more oddities. A Neal J. King has a Facebook page that is sketchy with personal information, yet if you search for "Neal J. King" in Facebook's search box, his profile doesn't pop up. His wall is filled with posts about the recent Wall Street protests, banking, and criticism of the Patriot Act. Keep scrolling down and he "likes", a German mobile phone sim card site.  He also claims highbrow taste in literature and books, and it seems he's an avid reader, having reviewed 46 books on Amazon--many deal with astronomy, biology, cryptography, linguistics, literature, mathematics, philosophy and physics. I read through his reviews, and his writing is excellent. Very clean. No typos. His sentences are elegant yet there are no extra words. The writing style reminds me of Satoshi Nakamoto's posts in the Bitcoin Forum minus British spellings, which, as I noted above, I believe is a canard.

Finally, I looked up Vladamir Oksman's LinkedIn profile (there are a couple of guys with this name, but he was easy to find). He is a staff software engineer at Samsung, driving integration and commercialization of Android-based smartphones, and also has a vast technical background, including Linux, Msft, etc. Oksman lives in New Jersey.

Here's another subtle connection, and I'm not sure what it means. If you google "Vladimir Oksman bitcoin" you get a handful of results, including his LinkedIn profile, a patent application listing him as an inventor, and his resume. Yet "bitcoin" does not appear on any of these pages. When I checked cached versions of the first two results, it said, "These search terms are highlighted: vladimir oksman. These terms only appear in links pointing to this page: bitcoin."

So the word "bitcoin" appears in links pointing to this page? Why? I tried this with the two other inventors on the "Updating And Distributing Encryption Keys invention" patent. "Neal King Bitcoin" gets you two useless results, and neither have links with bitcoin pointing to their pages. '"Charles Bry Bitcoin" has zero results.

In conclusion, each of the three inventors listed on the patents can be circumstantially tied to Bitcoin. A fairly obscure phrase from the Bitcoin paper leads to a patent application that explores a similar technical topic and was filed that same year. The doman was registered three days after the patent application was filed. The three inventors seem to have the skills, and King's writing shares similarities with Nakamoto's, as do his interests.

But are they Satoshi Nakamoto? I showed my research, including the patents, to several computer security professionals--ranging from experts in cryptogaphraphy to network analysis pros--and there was a wide range of opinions. Meanwhile Charles Bry denies that he and/or his co-inventors are related in any way to Bitcoin: "I hope I do not disappoint you too much by saying that I am not Satoshi Nakamoto, nor am I associated with him or with Bitcoin in any way. I believe I can state with absolute certainty the same of the other co-authors of our cryptography patents." I also messaged Vladamir Oksman through LinkedIn, and he replied with a terse "Wrong person."

Neal J. King offered the most detailed response. He said the technical topics between his patent application and Bitcoin, "are very different, excepting that both relate to authentication to some extent." He claims he "had never heard of Bitcoin until this question came up," and had to look up Bitcoin on Wikipedia, concluding that, "It’s not a very good idea: Nakamoto’s algorithm is a solution in search of a problem." He finds fault with the lack of a guaranteed value for Bitcoins. "As long as people want to play the game, they can pretend that a Bitcoin has value, but if someone refuses to accept it, you can’t make him; and it would be seriously unwise for him to accept it." He contrasts this with the U.S. dollar, which "also has no intrinsic value" but since it can be used to pay taxes it can be used to settle debt. "If the U.S. government loses the ability to enforce payment obligation on that person, a $1 bill will also have no value beyond the paper."

He concludes: "So whether I have dazzled you with my insight, or baffled you with my obtuseness, I think you will agree that no one who would write the paragraphs above would have invested the considerable amount of time Nakamoto spent elaborating the Bitcoin concept."

I didn't find his argument particularly persuasive. For one, it begs credulity that someone who has filed patent applications dealing with cryptography had never heard of Bitcoin until I asked about it. That would be like a journalist claiming he never heard of Twitter. And just because a currency is accepted by a government to settle taxes doesn't mean its citizens will continue to believe in its value. When a currency suffers hyperinflation--like in Zimbabwe, for example--people adopt other currencies, namely the dollar or euro. And recall that Joe Klein, who was eventually outed as "Anonymous," the author of Primary Colors--that oh-so-mid-1990s literary mystery--also initially denied writing the book.

But the point of this column isn't to claim we found Satoshi Nakamoto. It's to show how circumstantial evidence, which is what the New Yorker based its conclusions on, isn't synonymous with truth. I doubt the New Yorker found the right guy. I also believe that our evidence is far more compelling, yet we also probably haven't nailed it either. In fact, we may have to wait a Deep Throat length of time before we ever find out who the real Nakamoto is, and by then it might not matter.

In the end, Nakamoto's greatest, uncrackable code might be his own identity. In Davis's New Yorker article he describes the impenetrable nature of Nakamoto's code. Every time his computer security researcher thought he found a hole, he would discover a taunting message from Nakamoto indicating it had already been patched. It was, Davis said, like a thief tunneling under a bank only to discover that someone had poured concrete into his path "with a sign telling him to go home."

Just like Davis, I found all this information that pointed directly to someone, but in the end I ran into a brick wall, albeit accompanied by far more gentler denials.

Classic Nakamoto.

It's funny there is a comment on this article by the Neal J. King himself, it links to his Disqus profile which is linked to his Facebook account:

Penenberg doubts that it would be possible to work in cryptography without having heard about Bitcoin. With all due respect, this shows that Penenberg is essentially someone who approaches technology from the outside: He learns about technological advances because people are talking about them. But if you are developing a solution to a problem that you have before you (and in the case of the patent in question, a problem related to securing telecommunications privacy), you can be completely unconcerned with and unaware of how someone else may be applying the same area of technology to an entirely different application (in this case, cyber-currency). In industrial settings, necessity (not technology) is the mother of invention. 

In the meantime, I’m cashing in on Warhol’s prediction of 15 minutes of fame – albeit for something I DIDN’T do! The only practical consequence seems to be that I got about 100 “Facebook friend” requests last week from Russian programmers. Unfortunately, not a single Bond girl among them …

And additional comments by Rebecca in the Atlantic Wire's article:

Neal King

The Evidence

King has various patent applications for things that sound related to Bitcoin that Penenberg dug up.

Neal King (he also goes by Neal J. King from Munich, Germany) is listed on a number of patent applications, notably "UPDATING AND DISTRIBUTING ENCRYPTION KEYS" (#20100042841) and "CONTENTION ACCESS TO A COMMUNICATION MEDIUM IN A COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK" (#20090196306), both of which seem Bitcoin-y to me.

He also writes kind of like Nakamoto, notes Penenberg.

I read through his reviews, and his writing is excellent. Very clean. No typos. His sentences are elegant yet there are no extra words. The writing style reminds me of Satoshi Nakamoto's posts in the Bitcoin Forum minus British spellings, which, as I noted above, I believe is a canard.

The Contradictions

As per usual, he both denies and criticizes the endeavor. "He claims he 'had never heard of Bitcoin until this question came up,' and had to look up Bitcoin on Wikipedia, concluding that, 'It’s not a very good idea: Nakamoto’s algorithm is a solution in search of a problem,'" writes Penenberg.

Vladimir Oksman

The Evidence

Like King, he comes up on Bitcoin related patents. Also, Pennenberg thinks there's something odd on Google:

If you google "Vladimir Oksman bitcoin" you get a handful of results, including his LinkedIn profile, a patent application listing him as an inventor, and his resume. Yet "bitcoin" does not appear on any of these pages. When I checked cached versions of the first two results, it said, "These search terms are highlighted: vladimir oksman. These terms only appear in links pointing to this page: bitcoin."

The Contradictions

More denials! "I also messaged Vladamir Oksman through LinkedIn, and he replied with a terse "Wrong person.""

Charles Bry

The Evidence

Bry, too, is linked to bitcoin patents. But he also has some other telling connections. He traveled to Finland in late 2007, around the time Nakamoto registered the domain, explains Penenberg. "In addition, Bry, who is a senior system engineer, lists German, English, French, and Italian as languages he speaks, and went to college in Paris."

The Contradictions

"I hope I do not disappoint you too much by saying that I am not Satoshi Nakamoto, nor am I associated with him or with Bitcoin in any way. I believe I can state with absolute certainty the same of the other co-authors of our cryptography patents," he told Penenberg.

A denial doesn't preclude any of these suspects. The founder of bitcoin would deny his identity, as Clear explained. "Nakamoto’s identity shouldn’t matter. The system was built so that we don’t have to trust an individual, a company, or a government." Of course, that statement kind of makes it sound like Clear deeply understands bitcoin's underlying philosophy in a way only someone close to the project would.

And.. There is a comment on this one too, by a Neal.  I'll leave the odd formatting in place.  The strange thing is, on the article comment, the comment by Neal says it was posted "about three weeks ago" so sometime in late March 2013, whereas this comment on the Atlantic Wire article was posted "about a year ago."  Very interesting.

Quote from: nealjking
It is highly surprising, and somewhat amusing, to suddenly
be in the public eye for something I haven’t done. I’ve sent out a note to my
friends, entitled: “How to become famous without really trying; or, How I
DIDN’T invent Bitcoin.”


The argument I gave Adam Penenberg as to why I couldn’t have
invented Bitcoin:


a) I don’t think Bitcoin is a particularly good idea:

I don’t think it’s a good solution to the
cyber-currency issue, because it’s not backed by anyone. Unlike Nakamoto and
the Bitcoin folk, I regard that as a bug
and not a feature. This isn’t a
question of intrinsic value: a US dollar bill also has negligible intrinsic
value. However, the US government has the power to put  you in jail if it believes you owe it
taxes; and a US dollar bill has the power to make them go away. Therefore, if
you owe the US any taxes, US currency has a definite value to you; and if it
has value to you, it has value to me, because if I have some and you need it, I
should be able to get something from you for it.

By contrast, a Bitcoin has no intrinsic value
AND no entity backing it up. As soon as people get a whiff of doubt about it,
they stop being willing to give anything for it.  The recent history of the valuation of a Bitcoin (check
Wikipedia) shows a wild series of gyrations. In a real currency, that sort of
behavior would indicate a complete breakdown in the authority of the issuing

A Libertarian-flavored summary: A currency is a
commitment backed by a police force. Bitcoin is not backed by a police force,
so it’s not a currency.


b) Given that I don’t think Bitcoin is a workable idea:

Either I am so smart that I can see straight through
to the hollow core of the Bitcoin concept right away; and in that case I would
not have wasted 2 years promoting it;

Or I am so dumb that I just don’t understand
properly the Bitcoin concept even now; in which case I am not smart enough to
have led the Bitcoin development project for 2 years;

Or else I had a Damascene anti-conversion after
2 years of promoting it: realizing its essential vacuousness only after writing
hundreds of hours of “world-class” C++ code. But in that case, why hasn’t that
happened to anyone else involved with Bitcoin?



Finally, Penenberg doubts that it would be possible to work
in cryptography without having heard about Bitcoin. With all due respect, this
shows that Penenberg is essentially someone who approaches technology from the
outside: He learns about technological advances because people are talking
about them. But if you are developing a solution to a problem that you have
before you (and in the case of the patent in question, a problem related to
securing telecommunications privacy), you can be completely unconcerned with
and unaware of how someone else may be applying the same area of technology to
an entirely different application (in this case, cyber-currency). In industrial
settings, necessity (not technology) is the mother of invention.


In the meantime, I’m cashing in on Warhol’s prediction of 15
minutes of fame – albeit for something I DIDN’T do! The only practical
consequence seems to be that I got about 100 “Facebook friend” requests last
week from Russian programmers. Unfortunately, not a single Bond girl among them
« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:55:10 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #4 on: April 14, 2013, 11:06:19 pm »
Theory: Satoshi is Jed McCaleb ^
Theorist: Remus (poster on
Date: Summer 2012(?)

My money says it is Jed McCaleb.

Proof: Why is MtGox in Japan???? He is a Japanophile who also choose the Japanese pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto!! And why does MtGox pay for - this suggests the MtGox founder/owner cared about bitcoin in general, otherwise why would MtGox not just run bitcointalk as a commercial (ad) site and make even more money with it. It is not the actions of a pure businessman to just give away money like that. And AND the final proof: Jed McCaleb also wrote eDonkey2000!!! Another p2p app! I rest my case.

Clarification requested:
Thanks for your answer. Jed McCaleb being the person behind both ed2k (with was an awesome piece of software and service) and MtGox indeed are excellent clues. Now how is Jed McCaleb related to Japan ? Please, share all the clues you've got!

Reply from Remus:
The first and largest exchange MtGox is in Japan (a choice not made for practical reasons - Costa Rica, Belize, etc.. would have been better choices), and Satoshi Nakamoto is a Japanese pseudonym... yet no one involved seems to actually be Japanese (no Japanese translation of anything). I posit that Jed McCaleb simply likes Japan, and accidentally let his love of Japan reveal the link between his public identity (founder of MtGox), and his pseudo-anonymous identity - Satoshi Nakamoto!

I always though that MtGox being in Japan and Satoshi Nakamoto being a Japanese name was too big a coincidence. Then I find out he wrote eDonkey2000 too! That is too much of a coincidence.

I will now examine the source code of eDonkey2000 and Bitcoin and look for common patterns. Poor Jed - he has been found out! But at least he's rich ;-)

Clarification requested:
Cool! You wrote " I posit that Jed McCaleb simply likes Japan" -- how can you posit that ? And please, do share any patterns you find.

Reply from Remus:
Because he set up MtGox in Japan, which is an irrational choice (Japanese corporate taxes are the highest in the world, and it's also a heavily regulated jurisdiction which is bad for a grey area business like bitcoin)... so he must have done it out of love of Japan (and be living there). There is no other rational explanation for paying the 40% Japanese corporate tax rate when he could have paid 0% in corporate taxes in many other countries.

Since I'm the only one with a good answer here, I think you should pay me, then setup another question asking for a forensic analysis of coding similarities between eDonkey2000 and Bitcoin (which is actual work btw).

Note from the question owner: Posted a nice hypothesis with reasonable arguments backing up. Only time might tell if he is right or wrong.

There are also some interesting comments added onto the question.

Quote from: eiffel
This is an interesting suggestion from Remus. It's the first time I've heard Jed McCaleb proposed as Satoshi Nakamoto.

However, the answer contains an error of fact. Jed did not set up MtGox in Japan. He operated it from the US. MtGox was only operated from Japan after MagicalTux bought it.

Also, there is no comparison between the code of MtGox and the Satoshi Bitcoin client. In the early days, MtGox didn't even do decimal arithmetic properly. Satoshi would never have coded a Bitcoin website that didn't handle the arithmetic properly.

Quote from: wladston
Eiffel, indeed interesting. In fact Jed wasn't based on US at the start. But getting acquired by a Japanase guy does mean some relation. Maybe Jed outsourced most of MtGox as he might have been busy with the Bitcoin project itself. Maybe Jed himself isn't Satoshi, maybe he is a part of the identity... Would like to see a forensic investigation on the first version of edonkey and bitcoind. You can tell a lot from the coding style.

wasn't based on Japan, I mean :)

Quote from: Nad
I have another small piece of information supporting Jed McCelab. Not only did he start MtGox, but when he dissapeared from all the btc forums he moved on to writing the code for ( This code is not only p2p, but is heavily financially oriented crypto. They even say in their intro for bitcoiners that "Ripple uses the same underlying cryptography as Bitcoin"! (

Quote from: wmraulsh
It's pretty obvious to me that this is a pseudonym. According to internet sources, though both names are Japanese, the combination of the two is unnatural Japanese style. Moreover, it's too coincidental that "Satoshi" means "wise" and "intelligent", while "Nakamoto" means "in the center" or "at the middle". It's very likely that the name means "the intelligent originator". One interesting tidbit: Jed McCaleb has no blog! His writing style would undoubtedly be revealed if he had one (whether or not he is considered to be Satoshi). He has the skill to create the protocol as well.

I find it funny that according to these articles, Mt. Gox was setup by Jed just around the time Satoshi stopped contributing to bitcoin. Maybe Jed had a get-rich plan based on all his ideas and understanding of p2p cryptocurrencies. Obviously Jed has moved on to even more things, like a new VC startup to CREATE ANOTHER CURRENCY.

There's two ways from which this pseudonym could have been derived:

1. Mr. X said to himself "I need a pseudonym." Then he looked up the meaning of words on the internet, and came up with "Satoshi Nakamoto".

2. Mr. X said to Japanese buddy: "I need a nickname." Japanese buddy said, ok, how about Japanese for "wise, intelligent creator"?

Both situations are very possible. Why do my senses tell me that (1) is what happened?

Quote from: wmraulsh
Another observation (don't know if it means anything):
"Satoshi Nakamoto" is almost identical to "Satoshi Yamamoto" -- a Pokemon Manga artist!! Coincidental?

Super Incriminating evidence:

This article was written in 2005. This was the day that eDonkey became a serious legal issue. That would have an impact on a person's decision to remain anonymous. Secondly, the article says Jed was 33 years old in 2005. And guess what? According to the following article, Satoshi was 37 years old back in 2010:

It is very possible Jed and Satoshi are one and the same. A birtday misalignment would account for Jed being 37 and not yet 38 years old: the 2005 article was written in October, and Satoshi stopped work on bitcoin (according to the following article, around July!):

I know how I'd feel if I were both Jed and Satoshi right now (as far as legal worries go).

Now, this is all theory...
« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:54:25 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #5 on: April 14, 2013, 11:28:08 pm »
Theory: Satoshi is Martti Malmi (a.k.a. Sirius) ^
Theorist: The Fool on
Date: 2013-02-15

This was posted a little more than a week ago:

It was 2009 when I was studying computer science at Helsinki University of Technology. Inspired by libertarian ideals, I came up with the idea of a decentralized Internet currency that cannot be controlled by any government or other single entity. I contacted some guy named Satoshi Nakamoto, who had drafted a technical proposal of such a system just a couple months earlier. He called it Bitcoin.

He was removed from the list of project developers on in June 2011. The same time Satoshi left. He still owns the and domains.

The replies on the thread are interesting and helpful to fill in the gaps:

Quote from: cbeast
That partially answers the question about the early adopters holding most of the bitcoins. The original programmer cashed out in 2011. That still does not prove he is Satoshi Nakamoto, but he probably knows who he is.

Which, if true, he was the holder of the address 1eHhgW6vquBYhwMPhQ668HPjxTtpvZGPC.  I was observing that address in the Top 100 Richest Bitcoin Wallets for the longest time and then in Summer 2011 that address got entirely cashed out.  The address had a balance of 424242.42424242 BTC.  I'm going to peg Martti Malmi as the owner of that wallet, in my theory, but I don't think he is Satoshi.  Just like cbeast mentions, he probably would have some intel on the identity of Satoshi, though. 

I see that Sirius is still an active member on Bitcointalk, though.  So maybe he didn't cause the crash and this is a mistake.

Quote from: Liquid;u=4

Martti Malmi (aka Sirius), a student of Aalto University in Finland, was one of the core developers early on in the project. Satoshi attributed some of the new features of version 0.2 to him here and he was the one making the first commits to the Sourceforge repository back in August 2009. He was removed from the list of project developers on in June 2011.

As Andrew points out in his answer, both and is owned by Martti. He is the administrator of the forums, still active there, and could most likely be contacted using the PM feature on the forums. Both Martti and Gavin Andresen (lead developer) have access to the website.


Quote from: theymos
I was here for much of the time period that you're talking about, and I'd be very surprised if Sirius is Satoshi. Satoshi would have had to have gone to ridiculous lengths to create such a natural alt identity.

Quote from: Technomage
I highly doubt that Sirius is Satoshi. I know Martti personally and I've talked to him many times, and my impression is that he is not Satoshi and he also doesn't know who Satoshi is. My opinion is that with a 95% certainty it's not him. I've also met Vili Lehdonvirta whom has also been suspected of being Satoshi, and for him I can say with a 100% certainty that he is not Satoshi.

Personally I think that Satoshi is either someone from Trinity College in Ireland or a group of people from there. That is the most plausible lead I've seen on the hunt for Satoshi. I could be wrong though.

I stumbled across an interesting tidbit:

Sirius is also the person who start the development of Bitcoin on GitHub on 2/9/9, Satoshi arrives "only" two moths later.

Which although interesting, makes perfect sense since he was the coder...
« Last Edit: March 14, 2014, 11:59:18 pm by maplesyrupghost » founder - bitcoin buy/sell classifieds forum

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #5 on: April 14, 2013, 11:28:08 pm »

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #6 on: April 14, 2013, 11:57:48 pm »
Theory: Satoshi was Len Sassaman ^
Theorist: rpietila on
Date: 2013-03-15

I entertain the idea that Len Sassaman with his wife is/was Satoshi, and that he was murdered by the CIA.

Not much else other than that as his theory.  But it is a very interesting suggestion.  Everything fits.  Unfortunately he committed suicide on July 3rd, 2011, right around the time "Satoshi" was last seen.  Very unfortunate!  RIP Len! 

On Len's Wiki page, there is a reference to a tweet made by Len's wife, Meredith L. Patterson, regarding this:

Just got off the phone with the embassy. Having to talk to a consul about my husband's suicide is the worst conversation I've ever had.

And a Google or two later I find another interesting article with this same conclusion:


Good Lord.  My Husband was telling me about an article he read in Popular Science about a Meredith Patterson, which led me to look her up online, thus finding out all kinds of things about her (Masters degree in linguistics and PhD in computer science, author, bio-hacker, etc etc etc). The article was about her practicing genetic engineering in her kitchen; whether it was glow in the dark yogurt or a version of acidophilus that can protect against tainted milk.  Read about her on Wikipedia.  Her Husband was Len Sassaman.  Talk about an activist. Read about him as well.  Patterson and Sassaman were a real geek power couple.  In 2009 Both Sassaman and Patterson worked with a Dan Kaminsky on demonstrating how the web certificate infrastructure is flawed.  This Dan Kaminsky gave a presentation in 2011 at Black Hat Briefings revealing that a “testimonial in honor of Sassaman had been permanently embedded into Bitcoin’s block chain”.

So, I look up Bitcoin and discover this entire underground world of digital currency that had a gold rush and has done everything short of completely dying.  It’s founder, Satoshi Nakamoto, is believed to be a pseudonym and he just disappeared one day.

I read that Patterson’s Husband, Len Sassaman, committed suicide just last year, 2011.


Len was also honored by being permanently embedded into the blockchain via ASCII art:

$ strings -n 20 ~/Library/Application\ Support/Bitcoin/blk0001.dat
EThe Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks
=ybegin line=128 siz
e=8776 name=bitcoin.
:.: :.' ' ' ' ' : :
:.:'' ,,xiW,"4x, ''
:  ,dWWWXXXXi,4WX, 
' dWWWXXX7"     `X,
 lWWWXX7   __   _ X
:WWWXX7 ,xXX7' "^^X
lWWWX7, _.+,, _.+.,
:WWW7,. `^"-" ,^-' 
 WW",X:        X,   
 "7^^Xl.    _(_x7' 
 l ( :X:       __ _
 `. " XX  ,xxWWWWX7
  )X- "" 4X" .___. 
,W X     :Xi  _,,_ 
WW X      4XiyXWWXd
"" ,,      4XWWWWXX
, R7X,       "^447^
R, "4RXk,      _, ,
TWk  "4RXXi,   X',x
lTWk,  "4RRR7' 4 XH
:lWWWk,  ^"     `4 
::TTXWWi,_  Xll :..
Len was our friend.
A brilliant mind,   
a kind soul, and   
a devious schemer; 
husband to Meredith
brother to Calvin, 
son to Jim and     
Dana Hartshorn,     
coauthor and       
cofounder and       
Shmoo and so much   
more.  We dedicate 
this silly hack to 
Len, who would have
found it absolutely
--Dan Kaminsky,     
Travis Goodspeed   
P.S.  My apologies,
BitCoin people.  He
also would have     
LOL'd at BitCoin's 
new dependency upon
: :.: ' ' ' ' : :':
:.:     _.__    '.:
:   _,^"   "^x,   :
'  x7'        `4,   
 XX7            4XX
 XX              XX
 Xl ,xxx,   ,xxx,XX
( ' _,+o, | ,o+,"   
 4   "-^' X "^-'" 7
 l,     ( ))     ,X
 :Xx,_ ,xXXXxx,_,XX
   4XXi,_   _iXX7' 
  , `4XXXXXXXXX^ _,
  Xx,  ""^^^XX7,xX 
W,"4WWx,_ _,XxWWX7'
Xwi, "4WW7""4WW7',W
TXXWw, ^7 Xk 47 ,WH
:TXXXWw,_ "), ,wWT:

There are articles about Len and Bitcoin, here's one:

Len Sassaman was a brilliant cryptographer and a true champion for privacy rights and privacy enhancing technologies. He passed away on July 3rd, 2011 at the age of 31. He will be sorely missed.

I had several opportunities to discuss bitcoin and cryptocurrencies generally with Len, with the most recent exchange on June 25th below. In posting this, it is my hope that anonymity considerations with bitcoin are well understood by the individual user and appropriate for the type of bitcoin transaction that is undertaken, as all security is relative. I had asked him "if his concerns about bitcoin traceability were more of a non-cryptographic nature? i.e., real-world identity?" Len's reply, in his own words:

"Well, it's hard to decouple cryptography from identity in a crypto-based currency, but, yes, my concerns are real-world identity issues. Bitcoin is less anonymous than physical cash. Compare to Digicash, which was 'more' anonymous. It's useful to speak about these things in more precise terms; using the Pfitzmann terminology, Bitcoin lacks unlinkability as a property. 'Throw Tor or Mixmaster at it' isn't a very satisfying answer, at least not to someone with an understanding of how those systems fail. My fear is people will associate 'bitcoin' and 'anonymous', get seriously burnt by the fact that it's 'not' anonymous, but rather a persistent ledger of all transactions ever, and then dismiss future e-cash that actually 'does' provide anonymity and unlinkability, etc., because they've 'heard that before.'

It may be possible to use bitcoin as a building-block in constructing an anonymous payment system; I'm skeptical, but what 'is' clear is the people currently advertising such systems haven't ever worked on traffic-analysis defeating protocols before. Any state-level adversary can link bitcoin back to the user's real-world identity — or at least, real-world computer. You're probably marginally better off with pre-paid visa cards exchanged through some kind of swap system like the cypherpunks used to do for Safeway cards, though I don't know if that exists. This is all somewhat of a distraction, though, since it's unclear to me that Bitcoin will survive the speculators; that's not what it was designed for, and it's showing. Further, the competence differential between the designers of bitcoin itself & the exchanges is staggering. Sorry for that flood of messages. I've added you to Skype; when's a good time to chat?"

For more Len, here's his presentation, "Anonymity for 2015: Why not just use Tor?" and another, "Towards a formal theory of computer insecurity: a language-theoretic approach".
« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:51:59 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #7 on: April 21, 2013, 01:22:26 pm »
Theory: Satoshi is the "Crypto Mano Group" ^
Theorist: Phinnaeus Gage
Date: March 8th, 2012

Edit: This thread was created to discuss the possibility that Donal O'Mahony, Michael Peirce, Hitesh Tewari and now Michael Clear (et al., possibly more) make up the Crypto Mano Group, referred to as CMG (mano is Irish for coin), an entity we currently label as Satoshi Nakamoto.

Now where have I seen this White Paper before?

Under the circumstances, the task of maintaining and querying a database of spent coins is probably beyond today's state-of-the-art database systems.

A bank within the PayMe system mints coins, maintains a database of the serial numbers of coins in current circulation to prevent double spending, and manages the accounts of merchants and buyers.


I wouldn't say Satoshi is Michael Pierce, but a group composed of him, Donal O'Mahony and likely Michael Clear himself, hence his relutance on denying 100% that he was Satoshi to The New Yorker journalist.

Does it make sense? :)


A prototype was implemented in a C++/Unix environment on a Sun workstation cluster.

C++... that sounds familiar ::)

Why hasn't anybody done this yet? I searched on, read what was written in 2009, then arrived at the following:

Authors: Donal O'Mahony;  Michael Peirce; Hitesh Tewari.

I find it amazing that not a one of them has yet to pen a word about Bitcoin giving the book they published.

I do find this fascinating:

In the international bond and currency arena, our global strategist, Donal O' Mahony, has developed a broad-based following for his consistent and accurate commentary on macroeconomic and financial market trends.

Interests: Networks & Communications, Security & Privacy, Distributed & Parallel Computing


Why is this so important?  The code is publicly available, and algorithm is relatively easy to understand even by non-experts. That's what matters.  Satoshi obviously didn't want their identity revealed, why not let it be? 

I'll assume you concur that Satoshi is possibly a group oppose to one individual "he" as most normally refer to Mr. Nakamoto as.

<tin foil hat on> This is exactly what I would pen if I knew Satoshi personally and was directed to protect "his" identity, albeit I wouldn't have used the word "their" but gone with "he" to echo the general consensus. <tin foil hat off>

Putting aside who is Satoshi, let's explore who is Donal O'Mahony, Hitesh Tewari and Michael Peirce, starting with the latter.

This is a collection of links and pointers to existing payment schemes that were designed for, or are in use on, the Internet. If you know of any more, please let me know. An impressive list for sure with one notable omission.

When was the white paper <> written?  There's no date in there based on my quick skim...

Also, wasn't someone writing the book "Bitcoin Billionaire?" I thought I saw some guy on the bitcoin show talk about that a few months back...

Scalable Secure Cash Payment for WWW Resources with the PayMe Protocol Set.
Trinity College Dublin ©1996

%2/16 - A. Biggs
M. Peirce, D. O'Mahony, "Scalable, Secure, Cash Payment for WWW
Resources with the PayMe Protocol Set," Fourth International World
Wide Web Conference December 1995. Boston, Massachusetts. Peirce Paper

Donal O’Mahony

Donal O’Mahony graduated with 1st class honours in Engineering from Trinity College Dublin in 1982. After a brief career in industry at the Sord Computer Systems (a Japanese microcomputer startup company) in Tokyo where he worked as a researcher on new microcomputer operating systems and at IBM in Dublin, he re-joined Trinity College as a lecturer in Computer Science in 1984. At Trinity, he built a research group working in areas such as network architectures, protocols and computer security. He is the author of two books and over 60 papers in these areas. Prof. O’Mahony is a fellow of Trinity College and was a Fulbright fellow at Stanford University in 1999. In July, 2004 he led a team to establish the Centre for Telecommunications Value-Chain Research (CTVR), a major multi-university research centre involving over 100 active researchers working closely with a network of industrial partners including Alcatel-Lucent (Bell Labs). He is now full-time director of this centre.


the evolution of telecommunications requires bold design

technological disruption perturbs the inertia of governments, regulators and  market incumbents

evolution and disruption nourish innovation

Hitesh Tewari

Research Interests

Mobile Communications
Electronic Payment Systems

Lightweight AAA for Cellular IP: Hitesh Tewari, Donal O’Mahony:[/size]

Hitesh Tewari

Hitesh Tewari teamed up Michael Clear, along with A. Hughes, to pen Identity-Based Leveled Homomorphic Encryption from Learning With Errors and submitted to PKC 2012 in Darmstadt, Germany, on May 21-23, 2012.

Clear, M., Hughes, A. and Tewari, H., Identity-Based Leveled Homomorphic Encryption from Learning With Errors, Submitted to The International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography (PKC) 2012

PKC 2011 took place in Taormina, Italy, and its main sponsor was...wait for it...Google. The name of the host was Tom Williams (OK, so I made that one up).

~Cackling Bear~


Donal O'Mahony --> Davy --> Franklin Templeton Investments --> Mystery American(s)

~Cackling Bear~

Just read through the other thread on Satoshi Nakamoto and clicked the link to the book "Electronic Payment Systems for E-commerce"; if the picture of the author on that page is correct (which from the page here:, it is) I'm afraid that Donal O' Mahony the author and Donal O' Mahony of Davy are two completely different people! Which puts paid to the idea that Donal O' Mahony of Davy is our Satoshi, but I'll see if I can find out whether he knows about Bitcoin anyway - if he's interested, I'll see if I can get him to pay the forums here a visit and throw up a post detailing his views on Bitcoin.

- G

Is that the picture of some dentist?

I just thought it odd that the dentist and the professor look similar, carry the same name and live in the same country if not the same town.
Here is another pic of professor O'Mahony:
Below is one of Professor O'Mahony's documents on micropayment systems.

3.2 Purchase of a Payment Chain
A mobile user buys prepaid tokens, through their phone or terminal, from a third party broker, using an existing macropayment system. The user nominates any specific service provider (SP), called the enforcer, through whom the tokens will be spent. Service providers include both NOs and VASPs.
The broker creates tokens by repeatedly applying a one way hash function, such as the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) [8], to a root value PX to generate a payment hash chain. The broker commits to the hash chain, or promises to honor its value, by digitally signing the payment chain commitment (CommP), consisting of the final hash (P0), the chain length, the total value of the chain, and the identity of the enforcer through whom it must be spent:

CommP = {P0, Length, Chain_value, Enforcer}SigBroker1

The commitment shows that each payment hash value from the chain represents pre-paid value, redeemable at the broker. The value of a single payment hash is later fixed, on a per call basis, by the enforcer. This allows the same hash value to be used to pay all parties. The mobile user is given CommP and the secret PX from which the chain values can be generated.
Micropayments for Mobile Networks - .doc

Leave Satoshi alone!


What good does it do besides providing the chance to show everyone how clever one is?
I am glad that Satoshi was not so insecure and chose to stay anonymous and allow bitcoin
to stand on its own merits.

Do you see any irony in someone who values anonymity so much, publishes a non-anonymous digital payment system.
Also, you could say the challenge of solving this mystery is a result of its own success, providing a nice feather in the cap for the bright penny.

While Professor O'Mahony has spent time developing digital currency payment systems, the systems he has designed are much different than Bitcoin's design. The Bitcoin vision is most certainly not O'Mahony's and anonymity is not his style.

A coin in our scheme consists of a number of fields, such as the serial number, denomination, validity period and a transaction list. This transaction list comprises of a variable number of transactions items, where each transaction item is the result of a transfer of the coin between two
users in the system. A transaction item consists of n identity strings (I1, I2, ... , In). Each of these identity strings is generated, by splitting the identity of the user using the secret splitting protocol.

Schneier proposes a digital cash protocol that makes use of the above technique to encode the identity of a user.

Congratulations to Sasa Djokic, Amit Mehta, Donal O'Mahony and Patricia Scanlon, who have been elevated to Senior Member status. The criteria for elevation to Senior member status can be found in the Membership & Service section of the IEEE website. If you believe that you are eligible to apply for Senior Membership please contact Dr Adam  click here to read the full article...

(just some more random facts pulled from thin air)

Donal O'Mahony graduated with first class honours in Engineering from Trinity College Dublin in 1982. His first job was with SORD Computer Corporation in Japan and Dublin. Sord was a Japanese startup company with aspirations to displace Apple as the then leader in micro-computers.

O'Mahony is a senior member of the IEEE

The big difference between offline anonymous digital cash and offline identified digital cash is that the information accumulated with anonymous digital cash will only reveal the identity of the spender if the cash is double spent. If the anonymous digital cash is not double spent, the bank can not determine the identity of the original spender nor can it reconstruct the path the cash took through the economy.

With identified digital cash, both offline or online, the bank can always reconstruct the path the cash took through the economy. The bank will know what everyone bought, where they bought it, when they bought it, and how much they paid. And what the bank knows, the IRS knows.

Why would those who respect anonymity so much choose an identified digital cash system?

Satoshi told me that Bitcoin was roughly 2 years in the making before it was released. I am very skeptical he was at that meeting. Much more likely is that he simply copied the BibTEX citation code from here:

As you can see, the "booktitle" attribute is simply the name of the meeting

Code: [Select]
    author = {H. Massias and X. Serret Avila and J.-J. Quisquater},
    title = {Design Of A Secure Timestamping Service With Minimal Trust Requirement},
    booktitle = {the 20th Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux},
    year = {1999}

I think this sort of thing is a waste of time. He clearly wanted to be left alone. If one day he decides to rejoin the project, I'm sure he'll be willing to answer questions about his background.

At the risk of repeating myself: the most likely Satoshi candidate is Robert Hettinga.

It cannot be Michael Clear (among other reasons) because the Satoshi web posts show knowledge and culture dating to the 1980s. Michael Clear is a young man and could not have made those posts which were made by a man in his late 40s or 50s.

« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:50:26 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #8 on: April 21, 2013, 01:27:47 pm »
Theory: Satoshi is a government ^
Theorist: Paul Graham
Date: April 14th, 2013

I've long suspected bitcoin was created by a government. Bulletproof protocols usually require peer review, yet there have been zero leaks from the reviewers. Pools of crypto guys who don't leak stuff are usually employed by governments.
The part that puzzles me is why a government would do this. I can imagine several possibilities:

1. To finance their own black operations.

2. Because they thought digital currencies were inevitable, and they preferred bitcoin to some potentially more malevolent form. (Could bitcoin have been worse from a government's point of view?)

3. A friend suggested this: because they felt their currency would never become the standard reserve currency, and they felt it was better that no one's be if theirs couldn't be.

4. A variant of the above: the US did it because it seemed inevitable that the dollar would eventually lose its place as the standard reserve currency, and better to have it replaced by bitcoin that the yuan.

I realize some of these explanations are pretty far fetched, but so is an individual cooking up bitcoin as an intellectual exercise. Whatever the explanation of bitcoin's origin turns out to be, it will probably be pretty weird.

Anyone have opinions about these possible explanations, or other ones?
« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:45:18 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #9 on: April 28, 2013, 10:19:13 am »
Theory: Satoshi is Michael Niklaus Weber ^
Theorist: Ars Pistorica
Date: April 28th, 2013

Enter the Satoshi.

Research is important.  Dig in.

Google the whois results for ‘,’ and you’ll find this result, with bold added for emphasis:

Domain ID:D153621148-LROR
Created On:18-Aug-2008 13:19:55 UTC
Last Updated On:18-May-2011 04:47:13 UTC
Expiration Date:18-Aug-2019 13:19:55 UTC
Sponsoring Registrar:eNom, Inc. (R39-LROR)

The whois for ‘’ reveals more:

Administrative Contact:
   AnonyousSpeech AnonymousSpeech ()
   Fax: +81.09037462746
   1-3-3 Sakura House
   Tokyo, TOKYO 169-0072

Technical Contact:
   AnonyousSpeech AnonymousSpeech ()
   Fax: +81.09037462746
   1-3-3 Sakura House
   Tokyo, TOKYO 169-0072

Registrant Contact:
   AnonyousSpeech AnonymousSpeech ()
Creation date: 18 Aug 2008 13:19:00
Expiration date: 18 Aug 2016 13:19:00

A quick glance through ‘’ reveals the name ‘Michael Niklaus Weber.’

Further Google searches confirm ‘Michael Weber’ as the person who maintains the site, with a contact e-mail of

The whois for ‘’ shows that it, too, has the same owner.

   Michael Weber
   1-3-3 Sakura House
   Tokyo, Tokyo 175-0083
   Administrative Contact:
      Weber, Michael
      2-4-3 Ogikubo
      Tokyo, Tokyo 167-0052
   Technical Contact:
      Weber, Michael
      2-4-3 Ogikubo
      Tokyo, Tokyo 167-0052
   Domain servers in listed order:

A quick Google search for ‘’ gives way to a Google+ profile:

Further searching then yields this profile:

Name: Michael Weber
WAYN Username: MichaelWeber81
Date of birth:04  - 06  - 1981
Home location: Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico
Eye Color:Green
Hair Color:Blonde
My favorite
Type of music:Electronic
Song:la la la
Band/Group:Easy Teds
« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:43:56 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #10 on: May 11, 2013, 12:29:39 am »
Theory: Satoshi is DeathAndTaxes on BitcoinTalk ^
Theorist: Come-from-Beyond on BitcoinTalk
Date: May 11th, 2013

Some time ago I stopped mining cryptocoins and launched SSN@Home (Search for Satoshi Nakamoto) project on the hardware. The bot dug thru different sites related to Bitcoin, crypto, libertanians, etc. Today I got the final result - it's a list of identities - and DeathAndTaxes is #1 in it (less than 50% match though). I can't ask him "Are you Satoshi", well, I can, but I bet he will answer "No" in any case. I'm asking the community, who is he? Do u have any proof that he is what he pretends to be (I mean in RL)? Do u have any info that could prove (or disprove) that he is Satoshi?

Sorry for talking about u in 3rd person form. But it makes no sense to ask u regarding the issue.

to which he replied:

Quote from: Bitinvestor
No. D&T is smart, but he's not THAT smart.

This.  The first time I learned about Bitcoin, I took a look at the whitepaper and code I found all kinds of "flaws".  It wasn't until hours (days?) of reading and researching that the elegance of the solution became visible (like a Polaroid appearing from the black).  It is humbling when you realize that you are looking at the product of someone far above your own capabilities and they have created what you previously considered impossible.  In a hundred years in a hundred parallel worlds I wouldn't have come up with the concept of Bitcoin, it was simply too alien.  It goes beyond just intelligence, the idea was simply outside my frame of reference.  The problem wasn't even one I considered that a solution existed. 

Now Satoshi's coding (nuts and bolts)?  Blech that is another story but nobody complains that Einstein's notes are hard to read because he had bad handwriting.

For the record:

I can't ask him "Are you Satoshi", well, I can, but I bet he will answer "No" in any case.

« Last Edit: May 11, 2013, 12:41:12 am by maplesyrupghost » founder - bitcoin buy/sell classifieds forum

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #10 on: May 11, 2013, 12:29:39 am »

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #11 on: March 06, 2014, 11:59:45 am »
** this whole ordeal has been a mega gong show and I have a backlog of interesting things to add to this post **

Apparently Satoshi Nakamoto is... Satoshi Nakamoto!!  They figured it out.  This is outrageous.  He used his real name.  *mindblown*  <-- That was my original thought when I first heard of this discovery.  In hindsight, she had a good hunch, but IMHO she totally dropped the ball when it comes down to EVIDENCE.  It really doesn't make sense...  Although there is still the chance it is truth. 

Only a theory until he signs a message with Satoshi's PGP key stating so...

Theory: Satoshi is Satoshi Nakamoto A.K.A. Dorian Prentice ^
Theorist: Leah McGrath Goodman from Newsweek Magazine
Date: 2014-03-06

Satoshi Nakamoto stands at the end of his sunbaked driveway looking timorous. And annoyed.

He's wearing a rumpled T-shirt, old blue jeans and white gym socks, without shoes, like he has left the house in a hurry. His hair is unkempt, and he has the thousand-mile stare of someone who has gone weeks without sleep.

He stands not with defiance, but with the slackness of a person who has waged battle for a long time and now faces a grave loss.

Two police officers from the Temple City, Calif., sheriff's department flank him, looking puzzled. "So, what is it you want to ask this man about?" one of them asks me. "He thinks if he talks to you he's going to get into trouble."

"I don't think he's in any trouble," I say. "I would like to ask him about Bitcoin. This man is Satoshi Nakamoto."

"What?" The police officer balks. "This is the guy who created Bitcoin? It looks like he's living a pretty humble life."

I'd come here to try to find out more about Nakamoto and his humble life. It seemed ludicrous that the man credited with inventing Bitcoin - the world's most wildly successful digital currency, with transactions of nearly $500 million a day at its peak - would retreat to Los Angeles's San Bernardino foothills, hole up in the family home and leave his estimated $400 million of Bitcoin riches untouched. It seemed similarly implausible that Nakamoto's first response to my knocking at his door would be to call the cops. Now face to face, with two police officers as witnesses, Nakamoto's responses to my questions about Bitcoin were careful but revealing.

Tacitly acknowledging his role in the Bitcoin project, he looks down, staring at the pavement and categorically refuses to answer questions.

"I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it," he says, dismissing all further queries with a swat of his left hand. "It's been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection."

Nakamoto refused to say any more, and the police made it clear our conversation was over.

But a two-month investigation and interviews with those closest to Nakamoto and the developers who worked most frequently with him on the out-of-nowhere global phenomenon that is Bitcoin reveal the myths surrounding the world's most famous crypto-currency are largely just that - myths - and the facts are much stranger than the well-established fiction.

Far from leading to a Tokyo-based whiz kid using the name "Satoshi Nakamoto" as a cipher or pseudonym (a story repeated by everyone from Bitcoin's rabid fans to The New Yorker), the trail followed by Newsweek led to a 64-year-old Japanese-American man whose name really is Satoshi Nakamoto. He is someone with a penchant for collecting model trains and a career shrouded in secrecy, having done classified work for major corporations and the U.S. military.

Standing before me, eyes downcast, appeared to be the father of Bitcoin.

Not even his family knew.

There are several Satoshi Nakamotos living in North America and beyond - both dead and alive - including a Ralph Lauren menswear designer in New York and another who died in Honolulu in 2008, according to the Social Security Index's Death Master File. There's even one on LinkedIn who claims to have started Bitcoin and is based in Japan. But none of these profiles seem to fit other known details and few of the leads proved credible. Of course, there is also the chance "Satoshi Nakamoto" is a pseudonym, but that raises the question why someone who wishes to remain anonymous would choose such a distinctive name. It was only while scouring a database that contained the registration cards of naturalized U.S. citizens that a Satoshi Nakamoto turned up whose profile and background offered a potential match. But it was not until after ordering his records from the National Archives and conducting many more interviews that a cohesive picture began to take shape.

Two weeks before our meeting in Temple City, I struck up an email correspondence with Satoshi Nakamoto, mostly discussing his interest in upgrading and modifying model steam trains with computer-aided design technologies. I obtained Nakamoto's email through a company he buys model trains from.

He has been buying train parts from Japan and England since he was a teenager, saying, "I do machining myself, manual lathe, mill, surface grinders."

The process also requires a good amount of math, something at which Nakamoto - and his entire family - excels. The eldest of three brothers who all work in engineering and technical fields, Nakamoto graduated from California State Polytechnic University in Pomona, Calif., with a degree in physics. But unlike his brothers, his circuitous career path is very hard to trace.

Nakamoto ceased responding to emails I'd sent him immediately after I began asking about Bitcoin. This was in late February. Before that, I'd also asked about his professional background, for which there is very little to be found in the public record. I only received evasive answers. When he asked about my background, I told him I'd be happy to elaborate over the phone and called him to introduce myself. When there was no response, I asked his oldest son, Eric Nakamoto, 31, to reach out and see whether his father would talk about Bitcoin. The message came back he would not. Attempts through other family members also failed.

After that, Nakamoto disregarded my requests to speak by phone and did not return calls. The day I arrived at his modest, single-family home in southern California, his silver Toyota Corolla CE was parked in the driveway but he didn't answer the door.

At one point he did peer out, cracking open the door screen and making eye contact briefly. Then he shut it. That was the only time I saw him without police officers in attendance.

"You want to know about my amazing physicist brother?" says Arthur Nakamoto, Satoshi Nakamoto's youngest sibling, who works as director of quality assurance at Wavestream Corp., a maker of radio frequency amplifiers in San Dimas, Calif.

"He's a brilliant man. I'm just a humble engineer. He's very focused and eclectic in his way of thinking. Smart, intelligent, mathematics, engineering, computers. You name it, he can do it."

But he also had a warning.

"My brother is an asshole. What you don't know about him is that he's worked on classified stuff. His life was a complete blank for a while. You're not going to be able to get to him. He'll deny everything. He'll never admit to starting Bitcoin."

And with that, Nakamoto's brother hung up.

His remarks suggested I was on the right track, but that was not enough. While his brother suggested Nakamoto would be capable of starting Bitcoin, I was not at all sure whether he knew for certain one way or the other. He said they didn't get along and didn't speak often.

I plainly needed to talk to Satoshi Nakamoto face to face.

Bitcoin is a currency that lives in the world of computer code and can be sent anywhere in the world without racking up bank or exchange fees, and is then stored on a cellphone or hard drive until used again. Because the currency resides in code, it can also be lost when a hard drive crashes, or stolen if someone else accesses the keys to the code.

"The whole reason geeks get excited about Bitcoin is that it is the most efficient way to do financial transactions," says Bitcoin's chief scientist, Gavin Andresen, 47. He acknowledges that Bitcoin's ease of use can also lead to easy theft and that it is safest when stored in a safe-deposit box or on a hard drive that's not connected to the Internet. "For anyone who's tried to wire money overseas, you can see how much easier an international Bitcoin transaction is. It's just as easy as sending an email."

Even so, Bitcoin is vulnerable to massive theft, fraud and scandal, which has seen the price of Bitcoins whipsaw from more than $1,200 each last year to as little as $130 in late February.

The currency has attracted the attention of the U.S. Senate, the Department of Homeland Security, the Federal Reserve, the Internal Revenue Service, the Treasury Department's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which in October shuttered the online black market Silk Road and seized its $3.5 million cache of Bitcoin. "The FBI is now one of the largest holders of Bitcoin in the world," Andresen says.

In recent weeks, a revived version of Silk Road as well as one of Bitcoin's biggest exchanges, Tokyo-based Mt. Gox, shut down and filed for bankruptcy after attacks by hackers drained each of millions of dollars.

Andresen, a Silicon Valley refugee in Amherst, Mass., says he worked closely with the person "or entity" known as Satoshi Nakamoto on the development of Bitcoin from June 2010 to April 2011. This was before the rise of today's multibillion-dollar Bitcoin economy, boosted last year by the unexpected, if cautious, endorsement of outgoing Federal Reserve chair Ben Bernanke, who said virtual currencies "may hold long-term promise."

Since then, Bitcoin ATMs have been cropping up across North America (with some of the first in Vancouver, British Columbia; Boston; and Albuquerque, N.M.) while the acceptance of Bitcoin has spread to businesses as diverse as Tesla, OkCupid, Reddit, and Virgin Galactic, Richard Branson's aviation company, which has said it will blast people into space if they cough up enough Bitcoin.

"Working on Bitcoin's core code is really scary, actually, because if you wreck something, you can break this huge $8 billion project," says Andresen. "And that's happened. We have broken it in the past."

For nearly a year, Andresen corresponded with the founder of Bitcoin a few times a week, often putting in 40-hour weeks refining the Bitcoin code. Throughout their correspondence, Nakamoto's evasiveness was his hallmark, Andresen says.

In fact, he never even heard Nakamoto's voice, because the founder of Bitcoin would not communicate by phone. Their interactions, he says, always took place by "email or private message on the Bitcointalk forum," where enthusiasts meet online.

"He was the kind of person who, if you made an honest mistake, he might call you an idiot and never speak to you again," Andresen says. "Back then, it was not clear that creating Bitcoin might be a legal thing to do. He went to great lengths to protect his anonymity."

Nakamoto also ignored all of Andresen's questions about where he was from, his professional background, what other projects he'd worked on and whether his name was real or a pseudonym (many of Bitcoin's devotees use pseudonyms). "He was never chatty," Andresen says. "All we talked about was code."

Andresen, an Australian who graduated from Princeton with a Bachelor's in computer science, eventually became Nakamoto's point person on a growing team of international coders and programmers who worked on a volunteer basis to perfect the Bitcoin code after its inauspicious launch in January 2009.

Andresen originally heard about Bitcoin the following year through a blog he followed. He reached out to Nakamoto through one of the Bitcoin founder's untraceable email addresses and offered his assistance. His initial message to Bitcoin's inventor read: "Bitcoin is a brilliant idea, and I want to help. What do you need?"

Andresen says he didn't give much thought to working for an anonymous inventor. "I am a geek," he says simply. "I don't care if the idea came from a good person or an evil person. Ideas stand on their own."

Other developers were driven by "enlightened self-interest," profit or personal politics, he says. But nearly all were intrigued by the promise of a digital currency accessible to anyone in the world that could bypass central banks at a time when the global financial system was on life support. In this respect, the launch of Bitcoin could not have been better timed.

In 2008, just before Bitcoin's official kickoff, a somewhat stiffly written, nine-page proposal found its way onto the Internet bearing the name and email address of Satoshi Nakamoto.

The paper proposed "electronic cash" that "would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution," with transactions time-stamped and viewable to all.

The masterstroke was replacing the role of banks as the trusted middlemen with Bitcoin users, who would act as sentinels for the integrity of the system, verifying transactions using their computing power in exchange for Bitcoin.

Bitcoin production is designed to move at a carefully calibrated pace to boost value and scarcity and remain inflation proof, halving its quantity every four years, and is designed to stop proliferating when Bitcoins reach a total of 21 million in 2140. (Bitcoins can be divided by up to eight decimal places, with the smallest units called "satoshis.")

"I got the impression that Satoshi was really doing it for political reasons," says Andresen, who gets paid in Bitcoins - along with a half-dozen other Bitcoin core developers working everywhere from Silicon Valley to Switzerland - by the Bitcoin Foundation, a nonprofit working to standardize the currency.

He doesn't like the system we have today and wanted a different one that would be more equal. He did not like the notion of banks and bankers getting wealthy just because they hold the keys," says Andresen.

Holding the keys has also made early comers to Bitcoin wealthy beyond measure. "I made a small investment in Bitcoin and it is actually enough that I could now retire if I wanted to," Andresen says. "Overall, I've made about $800 per penny I've invested. It's insane."

One of the first people to start working with Bitcoin's founder in 2009 was Martti Malmi, 25, a Helsinki programmer who invested in Bitcoins. "I sold them in 2011 and bought a nice apartment," he says. "Today, I could have bought 100 nice apartments."

Communication with Bitcoin's founder was becoming less frequent by early 2011. Nakamoto stopped posting changes to the Bitcoin code and ignored conversations on the Bitcoin forum.

Andresen was unprepared, however, for Satoshi Nakamoto's reaction to an email exchange between them on April 26, 2011.

"I wish you wouldn't keep talking about me as a mysterious shadowy figure," Nakamoto wrote to Andresen. "The press just turns that into a pirate currency angle. Maybe instead make it about the open source project and give more credit to your dev contributors; it helps motivate them."

Andresen responded: "Yeah, I'm not happy with the 'wacky pirate money' tone, either."

Then he told Nakamoto he'd accepted an invitation to speak at the Central Intelligence Agency headquarters. "I hope that by talking directly to them and, more importantly, listening to their questions/concerns, they will think of Bitcoin the way I do - as a just-plain-better, more efficient, less-subject-to-political-whims money," he said. "Not as an all-powerful black-market tool that will be used by anarchists to overthrow the System."

From that moment, Satoshi Nakamoto stopped responding to emails and dropped off the map.

Nakamoto's family describe him as extremely intelligent, moody and obsessively private, a man of few words who screens his phone calls, anonymizes his emails and, for most of his life, has been preoccupied with the two things for which Bitcoin has now become known: money and secrecy.

For the past 40 years, Satoshi Nakamoto has not used his birth name in his daily life. At the age of 23, after graduating from California State Polytechnic University, he changed his name to "Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto," according to records filed with the U.S. District Court of Los Angeles in 1973. Since then, he has not used the name Satoshi but instead signs his name "Dorian S. Nakamoto."

Descended from Samurai and the son of a Buddhist priest, Nakamoto was born in July 1949 in the city of Beppu, Japan, where he was brought up poor in the Buddhist tradition by his mother, Akiko. In 1959, after a divorce and remarriage, she immigrated to California, taking her three sons with her. Now age 93, she lives with Nakamoto in Temple City.

Nakamoto did not get along with his stepfather, but his aptitude for math and science was evident from an early age, says Arthur, who also notes, "He is fickle and has very weird hobbies."

Just after graduating college, Nakamoto went to work on defense and electronics communications for Hughes Aircraft in southern California. "That was just the beginning," says Arthur, who also worked at Hughes. "He is the only person I have ever known to show up for a job interview and tell the interviewer he's an idiot - and then prove it."

Nakamoto has six children. The first, a son from his first marriage in the 1980's, is Eric Nakamoto, an animation and 3-D graphics designer in Philadelphia. His next five children were with his second wife, Grace Mitchell, 56, who lives in Audubon, N.J., and says she met Nakamoto at a Unitarian church mixer in Cherry Hill, N.J., in the mid-1980s. She recalls he came to the East Coast after leaving Hughes Aircraft, now part of Raytheon, in his 20s and next worked for Radio Corporation of America in Camden, N.J., as a systems engineer.

"We were doing defensive electronics and communications for the military, government aircraft and warships, but it was classified and I can't really talk about it," confirms David Micha, president of the company now called L-3 Communications.

Mitchell says her husband "did not talk much about his work" and sometimes took on military projects independent of RCA. In 1987, the couple moved back to California, where Nakamoto worked as a computer engineer for communications and technologies companies in the Los Angeles area, including financial information service Quotron Systems Inc., sold in 1994 to Reuters, and Nortel Networks.

Nakamoto, who was laid off twice in the 1990s, according to Mitchell, fell behind on mortgage payments and taxes and their home was foreclosed. That experience, says Nakamoto's oldest daughter, Ilene Mitchell, 26, may have informed her father's attitude toward banks and the government.

A libertarian, Nakamoto encouraged his daughter to be independent, start her own business and "not be under the government's thumb," she says. "He was very wary of the government, taxes and people in charge."

She also describes her father as a man who worked all hours, from before the family rose in the morning to late into the night. "He would keep his office locked and we would get into trouble if we touched his computer," she recalls. "He was always expounding on politics and current events. He loved new and old technology. He built his own computers and was very proud of them."

Around 2000, Nakamoto and Grace separated, though they have never divorced. They moved back to New Jersey with their five children and Nakamoto worked as a software engineer for the Federal Aviation Administration in New Jersey in the wake of the September 11 attacks, doing security and communications work, says Mitchell.

"It was very secret," she says. "He left that job sometime in 2001 and I don't think he's had a steady job since."

When the FAA contract ended, Nakamoto moved back to Temple City, where for the rest of that decade things get hazy about what kind of work he undertook.

Ever since Bitcoin rose to prominence there has been a hunt for the real Satoshi Nakamoto. Did he act alone or was he working for the government? Bitcoin has been linked to everything from the National Security Agency to the International Monetary Fund.

Yet, in a world where almost every big Silicon Valley innovation seems to erupt in lawsuits over who thought of it first, in the case of Bitcoin the founder has remained conspicuously silent for the past five years.

"I could see my dad doing something brilliant and not accepting the greater effect of it," says Ilene Mitchell, who works for Partnerships for Student Achievement in Beaverton, Ore. "But I honestly don't see him being straight about it. Any normal person would be all over it. But he's not totally a normal person."

Nakamoto's middle brother, Tokuo Nakamoto, who lives near his brother and mother, in Duarte, Calif., agrees. "He is very meticulous in what he does, but he is very afraid to take himself out into the media, so you will have to excuse him," he says.

Characteristics of Satoshi Nakamoto, the Bitcoin founder, that dovetail with Dorian S. Nakamoto, the computer engineer, are numerous. Those working most closely with Bitcoin's founder noticed several things: he seemed to be older than the other Bitcoin developers. And he worked alone.

"He didn't seem like a young person and he seemed to be influenced by a lot of people in Silicon Valley," says Nakamoto's Finnish protégé, Martti Malmi. Andresen concurs: "Satoshi's style of writing code was old-school. He used things like reverse Polish notation."

In addition, the code was not always terribly neat, another sign that Nakamoto was not working with a team that would have cleaned up the code and streamlined it.

"Everyone who looked at his code has pretty much concluded it was a single person," says Andresen. "We have rewritten roughly 70 percent of the code since inception. It wasn't written with nice interfaces. It was like one big hairball. It was incredibly tight and well-written at the lower level but where functions came together it could be pretty messy."

Satoshi Nakamoto's 2008 online proposal also hints at his age, with the odd reference to "disk space" - something that hasn't been an issue since the last millennium - and older research citations of contemporaries' work going back to 1957.

The Bitcoin code is based on a network protocol that's been established for decades. Its brilliance is not so much in the code itself, says Andresen, but in the design, which unites functions to reach multiple ends. The punctuation in the proposal is also consistent with how Dorian S. Nakamoto writes, with double spaces after periods and other format quirks.

In the debate between those who claim Nakamoto writes curiously "flawless English" for a Japanese man and those who contend otherwise, writing under both names can swerve wildly between uppercase and lowercase, full spellings and abbreviations, proper English and slang.

In his correspondences and writings, it has widely been noted that Satoshi Nakamoto alternates between British and American spellings - and, depending on his audience, veers between highly abbreviated verbiage and a more formal, polished style. Grace Mitchell says her husband does the same.

Dorian S. Nakamoto's use of English, she says, was likely influenced by his lifelong interest in collecting model trains, many of which he imported from England as a teenager while he was still learning English.

Mitchell suspects Nakamoto's initial interest in creating a digital currency that could be used anywhere in the world may have stemmed from his frustration with bank fees and high exchange rates when he was sending international wires to England to buy model trains. "He would always complain about that," she says. "I would not say he writes flawless English. He will pick up words and mix the spellings."

Eric, Nakamoto's oldest son from his first marriage, says he remains torn over whether his father is the founder of Bitcoin, noting that messages from the latter appear more "concise" and "refined than that of my father's."

Perhaps the most compelling parallel between the two Nakamotos are their professional skill sets and career timeframes. Andresen says Satoshi Nakamoto told him about how long it took him to develop Bitcoin - a span that falls squarely into Dorian S. Nakamoto's job lapse starting in 2001. "Satoshi said he'd been working on Bitcoin for years before he launched it," Andresen says. "I could see the original code taking at least two years to write. He had a revelation that he had solved something no one had solved before."

Satoshi Nakamoto's three-year silence also dovetails with health issues suffered by Dorian S. Nakamoto in the past few years, his family says. "It has been hard, because he suffered a stroke several months ago and before that he was dealing with prostate cancer," says his wife, who works as a critical-care nurse in New Jersey. "He hasn't seen his kids for the past few years."

She has been unable to get Nakamoto to speak with her about whether he was the founder of Bitcoin. Eric Nakamoto says his father has denied it. Tokuo and Arthur Nakamoto believe their brother will leave the truth unconfirmed.

"Dorian can just be paranoid," says Tokuo. "I cannot get through to him. I don't think he will answer any of these questions to his family truthfully."

Of course, none of this puts to rest the biggest question of all - the one that only Satoshi Nakamoto himself can answer: What has kept him from spending his hundreds of millions of dollars of Bitcoin, which he reaped when he launched the currency years ago? According to his family both he - and they - could really use the money.

Andresen says if Nakamoto is as concerned about maintaining his anonymity as he remembers the answer might be simple: He does not want to participate in the Bitcoin madness. "If you come out as the leader of Bitcoin, now you have to make appearances and presentations and comments to the press and that didn't really fit with Satoshi's personality," he says. "He didn't really want to lead it anymore. He was pretty intolerant to incompetence. And he also realized the project would go on without him."

On the other hand, it is possible Nakamoto simply lost the private security keys to unlock his Bitcoin and cash in on his riches. Andresen, however, says he doubts it. "He was too disciplined," he says.

If Nakamoto ever sells his Bitcoin fortune, he would likely have to do so at a legitimate Bitcoin bank or exchange, which would not only give away his identity but alert everyone from the IRS to the FBI of his movements. While Bitcoin lets its users conduct transactions anonymously, all transactions can be viewed transparently online - and everyone is watching Nakamoto's Bitcoin to see if he spends it, says Andresen.

For his part, Andresen says he is inclined to respect Nakamoto's anonymity. "When programmers get together, we don't talk about who Satoshi Nakamoto is," he says. "We talk about how we should have invested in more Bitcoin. I mean, we're curious about it, but honestly, we really don't care."

Calling the possibility her father could also be the father of Bitcoin "flabbergasting," Ilene Mitchell says she isn't surprised her father would choose to stay under cover if he was the man behind this venture, especially as he is currently concerned about his health.

"He is very wary of government interference in general," she says. "When I was little, there was a game we used to play. He would say, 'Pretend the government agencies are coming after you.' And I would hide in the closet."

Forensic analysts Sharon Sergeant and Barbara Mathews contributed to research for this piece.

Okay that was the first post, the theory, and only the beginning of the show.  I basically sat there with a bowl of popcorn watching the events to unfold, and it was happening too quickly to document so I'll do by best now.

Next up came the media swam at Dorian's house and the high speed chase.  There were tons of reporters swarming him and they literally chased him around L.A., Dorian had accepted an interview with one of the reporters in exchange for a "free lunch". 

You can see the first glimpse of him in this Youtube video where he says:

<reporter asks why he created bitcoin> No, no questions right now I want my free lunch.  <reporter asks about bitcoin> No no no no no no, okay, I'm not involved in Bitcoin. Okay? <reporter asks who is involved in Bitcoin> Wait a minute, I free lunch first, I'm going to go with this guy.  <video cuts, changes scene to where they are walking down the sidewalk surrounded with reporters.  reporter asks "sir, why did you do Bitcoin, why are you involved in Bitcoin?"> Hey ah, I'm not in Bitcoin, I don't know anything about it. <reporter asks "did you create the math for Bitcoin?"> Okay where's my lunch ticket?

The editor of the Los Angeles Times tweeted:

There is a huge chase going on behind #Nakamoto. Tons of media. All heading west on the 10 freeway

He then went to lunch (apparently chased, #bitcoinchase was trending on Twitter to some hilarity) and did a video denying involvement to clear his name. 

The man reason I'm here is to clear my name that I have nothing to do with Bitcoin.  Nothing to do with developing, um, I was just an engineer doing something else, and, if you look at the time span, 2001 when it was supposed to be developed, I wasn't there, I was working for the government through a contracting company.  I just believe that somebody put that fictitious name in there.  Satoshi Nakamoto, in Bitcom.. or Bitcoin.  <Dorian looks at papers in front of him.> Ah.. 2010 to two thousand..  I was at home.  I wasn't working for anybody.  <interviewer: "okay, I think this was where she said you were working on Bitcoin"> No.  <interviewer: "so, you were unemployed?">  Yup.  <interviewer: "can you say anything about what you were doing?">  That's not me.  I never communicated with Bitcoins.  Leah wrote all this?  Sheesh.

He also denied ties to Bitcoin to another LA Times reporter Andrea Chang:

Nakamoto now in DTLA. Told me in elevator that he's not involved with #Bitcoin, engaged in weird car chase "all for a free lunch."

The next day came an interesting article by

LA Sheriff's Department: Newsweek Writer Accurately Quoted Nakamoto

A spokesperson for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department issued a statement Friday confirming the accuracy of quotes that appeared in Leah McGrath Goodman's Newsweek article allegedly outing the founder of Bitcoin.

The Department said two sheriff's deputies were called to Nakamoto's home in Temple City when Goodman came there to interview him Feb. 20 and they both "agreed" that the quotes in the story were correct.

"I spoke to the two Los Angeles County Sheriff’s deputies who handled the call and who were present for the conversation," Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department Captain Mike Parker said. "Both sheriff’s deputies agreed that the quotes published in the March 6, 2014, Newsweek magazine Bitcoin article that were attributed to the resident and to one of the deputies were accurate."

After Goodman's story was published Thursday, Nakamoto denied having anything to do with the cryptocurrency and said he was misunderstood by Goodman when he told her, "I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it." Nakamoto said he was referring to his engineering career and not confirming he was involved in the creation of the cryptocurrency. He did not claim he was inaccurately quoted, only that his words were misunderstood. Goodman also quoted one of the deputies as having said, "This is the guy who created Bitcoin? It looks like he's living a pretty humble life."

The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department also provided details about why the pair of deputies responded to Nakamoto's home when Goodman came to interview him.

Read the other details the Department provided about the incident below:

At 2:09PM, on Thursday, Feb. 20, 2014, Temple Sheriff’s Station of the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department received a suspicious person call in Temple City.  The caller reported an unknown woman in her 20’s was knocking on the door at his home, and sitting on his porch for the past hour. The caller said he was afraid to open the door.

Two deputies responded and spoke to the male resident caller and the woman.  The woman identified herself as Newsweek reporter Leah Goodman and the resident expressed reluctance to talk to her.  The deputies were present for the brief conversation between the two, and then the resident went back inside his home and the reporter left.

Earlier today, Arthur Nakamoto, Dorian's brother, indicated to BI that Goodman had misquoted or misunderstood his comments.

On March 17th, Dorian has made his official statement (at least according to a tweet):[/size]

Mike Hearn has posted an article that completely obliterates the Newsweek theory.  I want to copy/paste it here, but it's quite long, so instead you can click here to go to the article on his web site and if years from now he takes it down, click here for a screenshot I took.
« Last Edit: March 18, 2014, 11:43:52 am by maplesyrupghost » founder

Offline maplesyrupghost

Re: Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Thread of Theories!
« Reply #12 on: March 14, 2014, 11:55:55 pm »
Theory: Satoshi is the Cypherpunks group ^
Theorist: supernatendo on reddit
Date: 2014-03-14

I would first like to apologize for the length of this post, but I feel it is a good read. As Carl Sagan once famously asked, "Where Are We? Who Are We?", I feel that this post may help the reader gain an understanding of what Bitcoin is, what it represents, and why it is important.

I recently became curious after the Newsweek Dorian S. Nakamoto debacle and decided to do my own research on who Satoshi Nakamoto may be... I started by breaking down the individual technologies that were fused together to solve Computer Science's Byzantine General Problem. I figured "What better way to know the author than by his/her works?"

Here is a list of results from my research:

  • ECDSA Inventor: Scott Vanstone
  • SHA-256 Inventor: Unknown (NSA)
  • Bitcoin Inventor: Satoshi Nakamoto
  • Justin Frankel, Gianluca Rubinacci and Tom Pepper: co-inventors of the first decentralized Peer-to-Peer file sharing network.
  • Adam Back: Inventor of the first Proof-of-Work system, which he later helped Satoshi graft into Bitcoin, and a member of "Cypherpunks". This "Cypherpunk" affiliation ended up sending me deeper down the rabbit hole.

A little bit I learned about these Cypherpunks, these men and women are my kind of people! True lovers of liberty, privacy, and freedom. In 1993, That's Nineteen-Ninety-Three! around 15 years before Bitcoin's release to the general public, a man named Eric Hughes wrote his original statement on the mission and goal of the Cypherpunks called 'A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto' in which he writes the following:

“Cypherpunks are dedicated to building anonymous systems… Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age… We cannot expect governments, corporations, or other large, faceless organizations to grant us privacy…We must defend our own privacy if we expect to have any. We are defending our privacy with cryptography, with anonymous mail forwarding systems, with digital signatures, and with electronic money”.

Did you see that? Right there in black and white?

"electronic money"

Further investigation of these Cypherpunks, their literature, and their software, convinces me that any group of them working together are really all that is needed to bring about Bitcoin. What's more, with the government's harsh punishment of the authors of e-gold and the liberty dollar, it really helps shed a spotlight on the cypherpunks' possible (and likely well-founded) paranoia in regards to the way government treated previous attempts at digital currency, and may be what prompted them to make up this "Satoshi Nakamoto" pseudonym.

I could very well be wrong. There very well could be a single brilliant mastermind who figured out how to bring together the various technologies worked on by the cypherpunks. When it all comes down to it though, it doesn't really matter who created the technology. What matters is what we do with it from here. We have a wonderful tool at our fingertips. Let's not allow it be downtrodden.

TL;DR Liberty, Security, and Privacy are the motivations behind bitcoin. It was likely invented as a collaboration, Satoshi Nakamoto doesn't need to exist. I have no physical evidence to back any of this up. Live long, and prosper. founder